5 PRS Proofreading and Editing Service PhD Experts • All Academic Areas • Fast Turnaround • High Quality evidence and your means of obtaining it with the scholarly community. Describing even the most wonderful and promising of studies is not enough on its own: the researcher needs to decide exactly what he or she has learned, why and what aspects of that new knowledge are significant, and then make both that knowledge and its importance clear for readers of the article. By writing at all, the academic or scientific author assumes that the information he or she has to share will be new and of both immediate and abiding interest to others working in the same field, and often beyond it, and that this information will therefore influence the nature and direction of future research in the area. In order to achieve such lofty goals, the evidence must be both significant and sound, and it must also be presented to readers in ways that make clear exactly what has and has not been shown as well as what those results might mean. It is the job of each author to make sure that his or her evidence, just like his or her methodology, meets the standards of acceptability and validity within the relevant field of study. These standards will differ considerably between disciplines, of course, but clarity is central to presenting evidence effectively no matter what the topic may be. This can be challenging: presenting data in ways that are both precise and interesting as well as grammatically correct and, if at all possible, eloquent is no easy task, as anyone who has written ‘more than’ or ‘compared with’ or ‘in relation to’ for the fourth or fifth time in a paragraph is well aware. There is an enormous temptation to cut corners by using, for instance, pronouns instead of precise nouns and words such as ‘former’ and ‘latter’ instead of repeating full descriptions of data in order to avoid repetition in the main text. Such efforts at condensation can be successful and they can certainly result in unencumbered language if they are very carefully worded, but when it comes to PARt I: wHAt to PUBlIsH And wHeRe to PUBlIsH It