68 PRS Proofreading and Editing Service PhD Experts • All Academic Areas • Fast Turnaround • High Quality So yes, good referencing takes a lot of work, but if you’re lucky enough to have a capable graduate student who could use a little extra cash, helping you sort out the details of your references and citations can be an excellent way for a student to learn about the nitty- gritty of publishing in an academic or scientific journal. The final responsibility lies with the author, however, and the sections below suggest some practices and methods that may prove helpful. 5.2.1 In-Text Citations and Quotations: Where and How To Acknowledge Sources Although referencing styles vary considerably among style manuals and journal guidelines, and any required variations should always be followed to the letter, there are three basic methods of referring to sources in the body of an academic or scientific paper: author-date citations (which tend to be used in the physical, natural and social sciences, although the Modern Language Association style sometimes used in the humanities varies this slightly by not using a date), numerical citations (frequently the referencing choice for papers in the medical and biological sciences) and citations contained in either footnotes or endnotes (preferred by many scholars working in the humanities). The first two methods are discussed in this section and the third in Section 5.2.2 below. In all three cases, the basic principle of when to provide a reference or citation remains the same: whenever you use the ideas or methods or results or words of another author, you should provide a reference to that author’s work, but exactly where to place the citation varies. If, for instance, you’re discussing an author’s work or using his or her ideas throughout a sentence, then the end of the sentence is usually the best place for the reference. If you’re making use of a source PARt II: PRePARIng, PResentIng And PolIsHIng YoUR woRk