95 PRS Proofreading and Editing Service PhD Experts • All Academic Areas • Fast Turnaround • High Quality did in the study, mentioning the variables or theoretical issues you investigated in your paper and the relationship between them (e.g., ‘Effect of Changing Weather Patterns on Home Insurance Policies’), and it can also hint at what you discovered (e.g., ‘Effect of Changing Weather Patterns on Home Insurance Policies: Clients Left Out in the Cold?’). Secondly, it should do both in an interesting and engaging way that allows the language you use to carry nuances and allusions (perhaps even a little word play) while providing the necessary details with precision: the word ‘Cold’ in the second example above, for instance, not only refers to the unpleasant physical reality of those who lose their homes due to natural disasters but also implies a certain lack of warmth on the part of insurance companies who do not provide support in such situations. The subtitle as a whole hints at the nature of the results, with the question mark leaving the matter uncertain and the reader whose sympathy or curiosity has been tweaked eager (one hopes) to discover the answer and thus well primed to read on. However, titles are also best if they’re as short as possible, and many style manuals and journal guidelines set strict word or character limits on titles. The APA Manual, for instance, recommends limiting the title of an academic or scientific article to 12 words or less, which renders the second (and to my mind more engaging) of my two examples above too long at 15 words. There are, then, both practical and creative reasons for avoiding all unnecessary words in your title: adverbs and adjectives are rarely necessary and should be used sparingly and to maximum effect (‘Changing’ in my title above, for instance, alludes to changes in both the weather and the coverage provided by insurance policies), while words such as ‘study,’ ‘method’ and ‘results’ are almost always extraneous in that they serve no useful purpose and can simply burden a title and render it more awkward: ‘Results Suggest that Clients Might Be Left Out in the Cold’ PARt III: commUnIcAtIng wItH JoURnAl edItoRs: sUBmIssIon, AccePtAnce, RevIsIon And ReJectIon