PhD Theses or Dissertations: Footnotes-Notes for Documentation

PhD Theses or Dissertations: Footnotes-Notes for Documentation | Tips on How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation
Providing references via footnotes or endnotes is a very different style of documentation than the author–date and numerical referencing systems. The use of notes for the primary purpose of recording citations is now almost exclusively restricted to the humanities, where its capacity for accommodating a wide variety of sources is particularly appropriate. The Chicago Manual of Style’s Notes and Bibliography method is a commonly used system, so I use it for my examples here.
Journal Editing ServicesJournal Article Editing Services
When references are provided in footnotes or endnotes, the notes generally include complete bibliographical information when sources are first cited, and shorter versions of the references (usually author surnames and shortened titles) for all subsequent citations of the same sources. Following the Chicago style of referencing within notes, the citation for a first and therefore full reference to a chapter within a book, including a page number for direct quotation, would take this form (with the titles of both the book and the Tales in italic font, though that font does not show up here):
PhD ThesisEditing Services
1 Phillipa Hardman, “Presenting the Text: Pictorial Tradition in Fifteenth-Century Manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales,” in Chaucer Illustrated: Five Hundred Years of the Canterbury Tales in Pictures, ed. William K. Finley and Joseph Rosenblum (New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 2003), 38.

Subsequent footnote or endnote references for the same source and page number would appear in this form:

2 Hardman, “Presenting the Text,” 38.

If more than one reference appears in a single footnote, the individual references are usually arranged in alphabetical order according to author surnames (although different arrangements are possible in order to place a quoted source first, for instance, or prioritise a certain source), and the individual references are normally separated by semicolons whether they are complete or shortened citations:

3 Hardman, “Presenting the Text,” 69; Hilmo, “Power of Images,” 158; Kerby-Fulton, “Professional Readers,” 223; Olson, “Romancing the Book,” 102.

With this style of documentation, a list of references is not strictly necessary because virtually all of the bibliographical information required to find sources has already been provided in the notes, with the single exception of full page ranges for chapters or articles. This missing element is therefore sometimes added at the end of the complete in-note reference to a source and followed (if necessary) by the particular page on which a quotation is found, so the full first reference I include above would end with ‘37–72, at 38’ if no bibliography were provided in a document.

Why Our Editing and Proofreading Services?
At we offer the highest quality journal article editing, phd thesis editing and proofreading services via our large and extremely dedicated team of academic and scientific professionals. All of our proofreaders are native speakers of English who have earned their own postgraduate degrees, and their areas of specialisation cover such a wide range of disciplines that we are able to help our international clientele with research editing to improve and perfect all kinds of academic manuscripts for successful publication. Many of the carefully trained members of our expert editing and proofreading team work predominantly on articles intended for publication in scholarly journals, applying painstaking journal editing standards to ensure that the references and formatting used in each paper are in conformity with the journal’s instructions for authors and to correct any grammar, spelling, punctuation or simple typing errors. In this way, we enable our clients to report their research in the clear and accurate ways required to impress acquisitions proofreaders and achieve publication.

Our scientific proofreading services for the authors of a wide variety of scientific journal papers are especially popular, but we also offer manuscript proofreading services and have the experience and expertise to proofread and edit manuscripts in all scholarly disciplines, as well as beyond them. We have team members who specialise in medical proofreading services, and some of our experts dedicate their time exclusively to PhD proofreading and master’s proofreading, offering research students the opportunity to improve their use of formatting and language through the most exacting PhD thesis editing and dissertation proofreading practices. Whether you are preparing a conference paper for presentation, polishing a progress report to share with colleagues, or facing the daunting task of editing and perfecting any kind of scholarly document for publication, a qualified member of our professional team can provide invaluable assistance and give you greater confidence in your written work.

If you are in the process of preparing an article for an academic or scientific journal, or planning one for the near future, you may well be interested in a new book, Guide to Journal Publication, which is available on our Tips and Advice on Publishing Research in Journals website.

topbanner errow